مطالعه الگوی دفع اووسیست و تغییرات وزن ناشی از آلودهسازی تجربی گوسالههای نوزاد با کریپتوسپوریدیوم پارووم

نویسندگان

1 گروه بیماریهای داخلی دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران-ایران

2 گروه بیماریهای داخلی دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران،تهران-ایران

3 گروه انگل شناسی دانشکده دامپزشکی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران-ایران

4 گروه انگل شناسی دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران

5 گروه انگل شناسی دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران-ایران

6 گروه مامایی و بیماریهای تولید مثل دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران- ایران

7 گروه بیماریهای داخلی دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران،تهران-ایران.

چکیده

زمینه مطالعه: کریپتوسپوریدیوم پارووم تک یاخته‌ای از شاخه اپی کمپلکساست که دام‌های اهلی و وحشی و همچنین انسان را آلوده می‌کند. هدف: مطالعه حاضر با هدف تعیین الگوی ایجاد اسهال و دفع اووسیست درکریپتوسپوریدیوزتجربی و ارتباط آن با کاهش وزن گوساله‌های نوزاد انجام گرفت. روش کار: 12 گوساله نوزاد در یک گاوداری شیری انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی به 2 گروه 6 تایی تقسیم شدند.6 گوساله(گروه آزمایش) 12 ساعت پس از تولد با 107× 1 اووسیست کریپتوسپوریدیوم پارووم آلوده شدند و 6 گوساله دیگر (گروه شاهد) با اووسیت مواجهه نشدند. روزانه 2 بار نشانه‌های بالینی بررسی و به منظور تعیین حضور و شمارش اووسیست‌های موجود، نمونه مدفوع از طریق رکتوم برداشت می‌گردید.جهت تعیین اثرات کریپتوسپوریدیوز بر افزایش وزن، تمامی گوساله‌ها از روز 0 تا 30 پس از عفونت با فواصل سه روز وزن می‌شدند. نتایج: تمامی گوساله‌های آلوده علیرغم دریافت آغوز مادری، از روز 3 پس از عفونت نشانه‌های دپرسیون و کاهش اشتها را نشان دادند و به دنبال آن اسهال آبکی همراه با توده‌هایی از موکوس و تغییر رنگ آن به زرد یا بی رنگ ظاهر شد. اسهال 8-5 روز ادامه داشت که این منجربه دهیدراتاسیون شدید گردید.بیشترین شدت اسهال 6-4 روز پس از عفونت بود. دفع اووسیست از روز 4 پس از عفونت شروع و تا روز 11 ادامه داشت. بیشترین میزان آن در روز (03.9 ± 106 × 48.60 اووسیست در هر گرم مدفوع) بود. نشانه‌های بالینی در گوساله‌های شاهد مشاهده نگردید.میانگین افزایش وزن گروه شاهد به طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از گروه آزمایش بود ( 001/0>P). وزن گوساله‌های آلوده تا سن 9 روزگی کاهش و بعد ازآن افزایش را نشان داد. نتیجه گیری نهایی: مطالعه حاضر علاوه بر تعیین الگوی دفع اووسیست نقش کریپتوسپوریدیوم پارووم را به عنوان عامل اولیه در ایجاد اسهال و کاهش وزن گوساله‌های نوزاد نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A study of oocyst shedding pattern and weight changes in neonatal calves experimentally infected with Cryptosporidium parvum

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faisal Zarghami 1
  • Mohammadreza Mokhberdezfouli 2
  • Sadegh Rahbari 3
  • Parviz Shayan 4
  • Elahe Ebrahimzadeh 5
  • Mamood Boloorchi 6
  • Samad Lotfolahzadeh 7
1 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University, Tehran- Iran
2 Department of Internal Medicine, faculty of veterinary medicine, Tehran university,Tehran- Iran
3 Department of parasitology, faculty of veterinary medicine, tehran university, tehran-Iran.
4 Department of parasitology, faculty of veterinary medicine, tehran university, Tehran-Iran
5 department of parasitology, faculty of veterinary medicine, tehran university, tehran-Iran.
6 Department of Obstetrics and Genital Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran- Iran
7 Department of Internal medicine, faculty of veterinary Medicine, tehran university,Tehran- Iran.
چکیده [English]

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium parvum is a protozoan parasite which belongs to apicomplexa phylum. The parasite infects both wild and domesticated animals and human beings as well. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to detect oocyst shedding and diarrhea pattern in experimental cryptosporidiosis and their correlation with weight loss in neonatal calves. METHODS: Twelve Holstein calves of both sexes were obtained at birth from dairy farm and randomly divided into two groups of 6 calves. Six calves were orally infected with 107 C.Parvum oocysts at the 12h post parturition. The control group was not infected. Clinical signs were examined and fecal samples were collected by the rectal examination twice a day. All calves were weighed from day 0 to day 30 with 3 days intervals to determine effects of cryptosporidiosis on weight gain. RESULTS: All infected calves were noticeably depressed and had a decreased appetite from 3 days post inoculation (DPI) while they received colostrum. Subsequently, watery diarrhea with clumps of mucus and yellow or pale changes of feces color were observed. The infected calves have had diarrhea for 5-8 days that remarkably had got dehydrated. The most severity of diarrhea was 4-6 DPI. Oocyst excretion started 4 DPI, peaked at 6 DPI (60.48×106±9.03oocysts/g feces) and continued until 11 DPI. Control calves had no diarrhea and other clinical signs during the whole period of the trial. The mean weight gain of control group was significantly higher than inoculated group during experiment (p<0.001). The Weight of the infected calves was retarded until 9 days old and then risen subsequently. CONCLUSIONS: Present study showed the role of C.Parvum as the primary cause of diarrhea and weight loss among neonatal calves.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • calves
  • Cryptosporidium parvum
  • Diarrhea
  • oocyst
  • weight changes
Anderson, B.C. (1981) Patterns of shedding of cryptosporidial oocysts in Idaho calves. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 78: 982-984.

Arrowood, M.J., Mead, J.R., Mahrt, J.L., Sterling, C.R. (1989) Effects of immune colostrum and orally administered antisporozoite monoclonal antibodies on the outcome of Cryptosporidium parvum infections in neonatal mice. Infect Immun. 57: 2283-2288

Blewett, D.A., Wright, S.E., Casemore, D.P., Booth, N.E., Jones, C.E. (1993) Infective dose size studies on Cryptosporidium parvum using gnotobiotic lambs. Water Sci Technol. 27: 61.

Causape, A.C., Quılez, J., Sanchez-Acedo, C., Del Cacho, E., Lopez-Bernad, F. (2002) Prevalence and analysis of potential risk factors forCryptosporidium parvum infection in lambs in Zaragoza (northeastern Spain). Vet Parasitol. 104: 287–298.

Chalmers, R.M., Davies, A.P. (2010) Minireview: Clinical cryptosporidiosis. Exp Parasitol. 124: 138–146. 

Changizi, E., Salimi-Bejestani, M.R., Javaheri Vayeghan, A.(2012) The Cryptosporidium ryanae infection commence in Iranian cattle. Tehran. J Vet Res. 67: 127-133.

Checkley, W., Gilman, R.H., Epstein, L.D., Suarez, M., Diaz, J.F., Cabrera, L., Black, R.E., Sterling, C.R. (1997) Asymptomatic and symptomatic cryptosporidiosis: Their acute effect on weight gain in Peruvian children. Am J Epidemiol. 145: 156-164.

de Graaf, D.C., Vanopdenboscha, E., Ortega-Mora, L.M.,Abbassi, H., Peeters, J.E. (1999) A review of the importance of cryptosporidiosis in farm animals. Int J Parasitol. 29: 1269-1287.

Enemark, H.L., Bille-Hansen, V., Lind, P., Heegaard, P.M.H., Vigre, H., Ahrens, P., Thamsborg, S.M. (2003) Pathogenicity of Cryptosporidium parvum—evaluation of an animal infection model. Vet Parasitol. 113: 35–57.

Fayer, R. (2008) General biology. In: Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis. Fayer, R., Xiao, L. (eds.). (2th ed.) CRC Press. New York, USA. p. 1-35.

Fayer, R., Gasbarre, L., Pasquali, P., Canals, A., Almeria, S., Zarlenga, D. (1998) Cryptosporidium parvum infection in bovine neonates: dynamic clinical, parasitic and immunologic patterns. Int J Parasitol. 28: 49–56.

Henrikson, S.V., Poglenz, J.F. (1981) Staining of Cryptosporidium by a modified Ziehl Nelson technique. Acta Vet Scand. 22: 594-596.

House, J.K., Gunn, A.A. (2009) Manifestations and management of disease in neonatal ruminants. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. Smith, B. (ed.). (4th ed.). Mosby, Inc. Philadelphia, USA. p. 336-366.

Jenkins, M.C., O’Brien, C., Trout, J., Guidry, A., Fayer, R. (1998) Hyperimmune bovine colostrum specefic for recombinant Cryptosporidium parvum antigen confers partial protection against cryptosporidiosis in immunosuppressed adult mice. Vaccine.17: 2453-2460.

Koudela, B., Jiri, V. (1997) Experimental cryptosporidiosis in kids. Vet Parasitol. 71: 273-81.

Martin-Gomez, S., Alvarez-Sanchez, M.A., Rojo-Vazquez, F.A. (2006) Obtaining hyperimmune anti-Cryptosporidium parvum ovine colostrum. A study of the humoral immune response in immunized sheep. Parasitol Res. 98: 119–129.

Mokhber Dezfouli, M.R., Sadeghiannasab, A., Akbarein, H., Tajik,P., Nadalian,M., Khajenasiri, Sh. (2005) Cryptosporidia infection and associated bacterial entropathogens in diarrheic calves and cows in dairy farms around Tehran. J Vet Res (University of Tehran). 60: 131-135.

Moon, H.W., Woodmansee, D.B., Harp, J.A., Abel, S., Ungar, B.L.P. (1988) Lacteal immunity to enteric cryptosporidiosis in mice: Immun doms do not protect their suckling pups. Infect Immun. 56: 649-653.

Naciri, M., Mancassolo, R., Reprant, J.M., Canivez, O., Quinque, B., Yovore, P. (1994) Treatment of experimental ovine cryptosporidiosis with ovine or bovine hyperimmune colostrum.Vet Parasitol. 53: 173-190. 

Nahrevanian, H., Assmar, M. (2006) A case report of Cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in AIDS patients in Iran. J Tropic Med Parasitol. 29: 33-36.

Perryman, L.E., Kegerreis, K., Mason, P.H. (1993) Effect of orally administered monoclonal antibody on persistent Cryptosporidium Parvum infection in scid mice. Infect Immune. 61: 4906-4908

Petersen, C. (1992) Cryptosporidiosis in patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 15: 903-909.

Quilez, J., Sanchez-Acedo, C., del Cacho, E., Clavel, A., Causape, A.C. (1996) Prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in cattle in Aragon (northeastern Spain). Vet Parasitol.  66: 139–146.

Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W., Constable, P.D. (2007) Veterinary Medicine. (10th ed.) WB. Saunders Company. Philadelphia, USA.

Rezazadeh, F., Zahraei–salehi, T., Mokhber Desfouli, M.R. Rahbari, M., Morshedi, A., Khaki, Z., Nabian, S., Rahbari, S., Bahonar, A. (2004) Clinical, biochemical and microbiological findings Of calves diarrhea in a dairy herd in suburbs of Tehran. J Vet Med (University of Tehran). 59: 301-308.

Riggs, M.W. (2002) Recent advances in cryptosporidiosis: the immune response. Microb. Infect. 4: 1067-1080.

Sagodira, S., Buzoni-Gatela, D., Iochmanna, S., Naciri, M., Bout, D. (1999) Protection of kids against Cryptosporidium parvum infection after immunization of dams with CP15-DNA. Vaccine. 17: 2346-2355.

Schnyder, M., Kohler, L., Hemphill, A., Deplazes, P. (2009) Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of nitazoxanide against Cryptosporidium parvum in experimentally challenged neonatal calves. Vet Parasit. 160: 149-154.   

Shayan, P., Ebrahimzadeh, E. (2008) Recombinant Cryptosporidium parvum P23 as a target for the detection of cryptosporidium- specific antibody in calf sera. Parasitol Res. 103: 1207-1211.

Trotz-Williams, L.A., Wayne Martin, S., Leslie, K.E., Duffield, T., Nydam, D.V., Peregrine, A.S. (2008) Association between management practices and within-herd prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum shedding on dairy farms in southern Ontario. Prevent Vet Med. 83: 11–23.

Winter, G., Andrew, A.G., Williams, L.K., Slade, M.B. (2000) Characterization of a major sporozoite surface glycoprotein of Cryptosporidium parvum.Funct Integr Genom. 1: 207-217.

Xiao, L., Herd, R.P. (1994) Infection patterns of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in calves. Vet Parasitol. 55: 257-262.