Objective: Collection of scientific information regarding bladder grafts by scientist of Iran and abroad.
Design: Retrospective study.
Procedures: The bladder is exposed to a variety of possible injuries from the time fetus develops. Individuals may also have other disorders, such as cancer, trauma, infection, inflammation, and iatrogenic injuries. Augmentation cystoplasty is now used quite commonly for reconstruction of the dysfunctional bladder when more conservative management fails. The use of bowel for augmentation of bladder was first described, experimentally in 1888 and used in human in 1898. In spite of surgical augmentation with gastrointestinal segments, several bladder- wall substitutes were tested of a free tissue graft for bladder replacement with a variety of auto- hemo- and heterologous tissues. These tissues consist of fascia, skin, preserved bladder, omentum, peritoneum, lyophilized human dura, and amniotic membrane. Also various alloplastic materials have been used as bladder patches or as a scaffold to allow bladder regeneration for example, polyethylene, teflon, polyterephthalate ethylene glycol (terylenc), and silicone rubber. A group of biodegradable prosthetic materials were used such as polyvinyl sponge, absorbable gelatine sponge, polyglactin 910 and collagen film. Grafts of acellular matrix were used as a scaffold for in growth of smooth muscle tissue and mucosa. Bladder bioengineering strategy is a new method that is being studied for augmentation now a day.
Conclusion: Experimental studies showed that acellular matrix and bladder bioenginecring are more promising methods to alloplastic prostheses, biodegradable prostheses, surgical augmentation with gastrointestinal segments, and so on. J. Fac. Vet. Med. Univ. Tehran. 58, 1: 83-87, 2003.