Macroscopic and microscopic esophageal structure of 23 one
humped adult camels were studied. The results were compared
to other information about human and other species. The
length of the esophagus of camel was 165-215 cm. The
cervical part of esophagus was the largest part and the
abdominal part was the shortest part. In the cranial part, the
esophagus of camel lied dorsomedian to the cricoid cartilage
of the larynx and trachea, but about third cervical vertebra, it
deviates to the left of the trachea and maintains this relation
until it reaches to the sixth cervical vertebra where it again
slopes to the dorsomedian of the trachea. The esophagus of
camel continues caudally in thoracic cavity and passes through
the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm and after a short
abdominal part, it joins to the cardia of the stomach.
Histologically, the epithilium was keratinized stratified
squamous. The lamina propria was loose connective issue and
was contained blood vessels and scattered lymphoid cells. The
muscularis mucosa consisted of small and scattered muscle
bundles that incearsed near the gastroesophageal junction.
The tunica submucosa, had predominant mucous glands. The
glands were seen along the entire length of the esophagus of
camel and it gradually decreased form cranial to the caudal
end of the esophagus. Tunica muscularis had entirely striated
muscle and its layers were arranged irregularly. Between the
layers, there were small and scattered smooth muscle bundles.
The amount of the smooth muscle increased abundantly near
the gastroesophageal junction. The tickness of the tunica
muscularis was not different along the entire length of the
esophagus and there were blood vessels and nerve plexuses
between the connective tissue of the tunica muscularis.