Application of polyurethane foam containing silver zeolite (Zeomic) in water filtration system to control the infection caused by Streptococcus iniae in rainbow


1 Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Marine Sciences University of Tarbiat Modares, Noor-Iran

2 Department of Aquatic Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Tehran, Tehran-Iran

3 Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Natural Resources University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj-Iran


BACKGROUND: Zeolites containing silver ion, in combination with synthetic fibers, show antibacterial activity. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to use silver zeolite indirectly as antimicrobial agents to control Streptococcus iniae infection which recently has caused disease in some of rainbow trout farms in Iran. METHODES: In this context polyurethane foams containing silver zeolite (10 and 20%) were used in water filtration of semi circulation culture system of rainbow trout fry. After addition of Streptococcus iniae (105 Cell/ml) to water in culture systems, the filters were evaluated for efficacy in inhibiting bacteria through measuring bacterial loading in water, monitoring disease symptom and culture of bacteria from kidney and spleen. RESULTS: The results indicated that filters containing silver compounds could significantly reduce load of bacteria from the water to 102 (p<0.05) compared to the control. Filter with 10% silver zeolite had higher efficiency among others. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this study, it seems that silver zeolite in combination with polyurethane foams has the sufficient potential to control bacterial infection and disease prevention in semi circulation system of Rainbow trout. Development of these filters and their application in control of aquatic animal diseases can result in reduction of using chemical drugs.


Akhlaghi, M., Keshavarz, M. (2002) Occurrence of streptococcosis in trout farms in Fars, Iran. Iran J Vet Res. 3: 183-189.
Brett, D.W. (2006) A discussion of silver as an antimicrobial agent: alleviating the confusion. Ostomy Wound Manage. 52: 34-41.
Bright, K.R., Gebra, C.P., Rusin, P.A. (2002) Rapid reduction of Staphylococcus aureus populations on stainless steel surfaces by zeolite ceramic coatings containing silver and Zinc ions. J Hosp Infect. 52: 307-309.
Cho, K.H., Park, J.E., Osaka, T., Park, S.G. (2005) The study of antimicrobial  activity and preservative effects of nanosilver ingredient. Electrochem Acta. 51: 956- 960.
Gooch, J.W. (2007) Encyclopedic Dictionary of Polymers. Springer Science. New York, USA.
Hotta, M., Nakajima, H., Yamamoto, K., Aono, M. (1998) Antibacterial temporary filling materials: The effect of adding various ratios of Ag-Zn-zeolite. J Oral Rehabil. 25: 485-489.
Inoue, Y., Hoshino, M., Takahashi, H., Noguchi, T., Murata, T., Kanzaki, Y., Hamashima, H., Sasatsu, M. (2002) Bactericidal activity of Ag-zeolite mediated by reactive oxygen species under aerated conditions. J Inorg Biochem. 92: 37-42.
Jain, P., Pradeep, T. (2005) Potential of silver nanoparticle-coated polyurethane foam as an antibacterial water filter. Biotechnol Bioeng. 90: 59-63.
Kawahara, K., Tsuruda, K., Morishita, M., Uchida, M. (2000) Antibacterial effect of silver-zeolite on oral bacteria under anaerobic conditions. Dent Mater. 16: 452- 455.
Lv, Y., Liu, H., Wang, Z., Liu, S., Hao, L., Sang, Y.,  Liu, D., Wang, J., Boughton, R.I. (2009) Silver nanoparticle-decorated porous ceramic composite for water treatment. J Memb Sci. 331: 50-56.
Matsumura, Y., Yoshikata, K., Kunisaki, S.,  Tsuchido, T. (2003) Mode of bactericidal action of silver zeolite and its comparison with that of silver nitrate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 69: 4278-4281.
Matsuura, T., Abe, Y., Sato, K., Okamoto, K., Ueshige, M., Akagawa, Y. (1997) Prolonged anti-microbial effect of tissue conditioners containing silver zeolite. J Dent. 25: 373-377.
Metes, A., Kovacevic, D., Vujevic, D., Papic, S. (2004) The role of zeolites in wastewater treatment of printing inks. Water Res. 38: 3373-3381.
Morishita, M., Miyagi, M., Yamasaki ,Y., Tsuruda, K., Kawahara, K., Iwamoto, Y. (1998) Pilot study on the effect of mouthrinse containing silver-zeolite on plaque formation. J Clin Dent. 9: 94-96.
Morones, J.R., Elechiguerra, J.L., Camacho, A., Ramirez, J.T. (2005) The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles. Nanotechnology. 16: 2346-2353.
Nagarajan, B., Jaiprakashnarian, G.B. (2009) Design and application of nanosilver based POU appliances for disinfection of drinking water. Indian J Sci Technol. 2: 5-8.
Phong, N.T.P., Thanh, N.V.K., Phoung, P.H. (2009) Fabrication of antibacterial water filter by coating silver nanoparticles on flexible polyurethane foams. J phys Conf Ser. 187: 1-8.
Rai, M., Yada, A., Gade, A. (2009) Silver nano-particles as a new generation of antimicrobials. Biotechnol Adv. 27: 76-83.
Rivera-Garza, M., Olguin, M.T., Garcia-Sosa, I., Alcantara, D., Rodriguez-Fuentes, G. (2000) Silver supported on natural Mexican zeolite as an antibacterial material. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 39: 431-444.
Roberts, R.J. (2001) Fish Pathology. (3rd ed.) Bailliere Tindal London. London, UK.
Rosa-Gomez, L.D.L., Olguin, M.T., Alcantara, A. (2007) Bactericides of coliform microorganisms from wastewater using silver-clinoptilolite rich tuffs. Appl Clay Sci. 40: 45-53.
Soltani, M. (2002) Salmonid Diseases. (1st ed.) Tehran University Press. Tehran, Iran.
Soltani, M., Fadai fard, F., Sharif pour, A., Zargar, A. (2009) Experimental pathology of the Streptococcus sp. in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Iran Sci Fish J. 17: 81-87.
Soltani, M., Jamshidi, S., Sharifpour, I. (2005) Streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus iniae in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Iran: Biophysical characteristics and pathogenesis. Bull Eur Ass Fish Pathol. 25: 95-106.
Soltani, M., Nikbakht, G., Ebrahimzadeh Moussavi, H.A., Ahmadzadeh, N. (2008) Epizootic outbreak of lactococcosis caused by lactococcus garvieae in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Iran. Bull Eur Assoc Fish Pathol. 28: 209-214.
Top, A., ـlkü, S. (2004) Silver, zinc, and copper exchange in a Na-clinoptilolite and resulting effect on antibacterial activity. Appl Clay Sci. 27: 13-19.
Uchida, M. (1995) Antimicrobial zeolite and its application. Chem Ind. 46: 48-54.
Uchida, M., Maru, N., Furuhata, M., Fujino, A., Muramoto, S., Ishibashi, A., Koshiba, K., Shiba, T., Kikuchi, T. (1992) Anti-bacterial zeolite balloon catheter and its potential for urinary tract infection control. Acta Urol Jpn (Hinyokika Kiyo). 38: 973-978.
Widlastuti, N., Wu, H., Ang, M., Zhang, D.K. (2008) The potential application of natural zeolite for greywater treatment. Desalination. 218: 271-280.