Study of histomorphometric changes in adult rats skin following injection of PRP and PPP


1 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Tehran University, Tehran- Iran

2 Undergraduate Student, York University, Toronto- Canada


BACKGROUND: PRP (Platelet-Rich Plasma) is a biological product that has shown significant therapeutic results compared to synthetic drugs and some traditional methods. The advantages of this method include: PRP, compared to other biological materials, is easily prepared in clinic and the safety is high as well. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the evaluation of histomorphometric properties after injection of plasma. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group (normal saline), PRP and PPP (Platelet-Poor Plasma) groups. In order to prepare PRP and PPP, blood samples (1cc) were collected through cardiac puncture and were centrifuged. The upper layer consisted of PPP and lower layer consisted of PRP. The 2% calcium gluconate solution (100 µl) was added to platelet-rich plasma (200 µl) layer to activate platelet. After seven days, the dorsal skin samples were collected. They are cut into 5 to 6 μm thickness sections using paraffin embedding method and were stained by hematoxylin, eosin and Masson’s trichrome. The epidermis, dermis and hypodermis layers of skin, the epithelial thickness of hair root sheath, maximum depth of hair follicles, the thickness of the whole skin, the number of sebaceous glands and hair follicles in the specified scale, finally the number of fibroblast cells and the percent distribution of connective tissue fibers were investigated in histometric structure of the skin and skin appendages. RESULTS: The results of this study indicated that systematic and controlled PRP may have beneficial effects on the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the skin and its appendages. CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that growth factors in plasma especially PRP, could be stimulated connective tissue fibroblast of dermal layer in the skin.


Aikawa, A., Ishii, Y., Suzuki, K., Yasoshima, A., Suzuki, N., Nakayama, H., Takahashi, S., Doi, K. (2002) Age-related changes in the dorsal skin histology in Mini and Wistar rats. Histol Histopathol. 17: 419-426.##
A-Trink, A., Sorbellini, E., Bezzola, P. (2013) A randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled, half-head study to evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma on alopecia areata. Br J Dermatol. 169: 690-694.##
Alsousou, J., Thompson, M., Hulley, P. (2009) The biology of platelet-rich plasma and its application in trauma and orthopaedic surgery: A review of the literature. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 91: 987-996.##
Awad, A.S., Huang, L., Ye, H. (2006) Adenosine A2A receptor activation attenuates inflammation and injury in diabetic nephropathy. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 290: 828-837.##
Azzena, B., Mazzoleni, F., Abatangelo, G., Zavan, B. (2008) Autologous platelet-rich plasma as an adipocyte in vivo delivery system: case report. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 32: 155-158.##
Cho, J.M., Lee, Y.H., Baek, R.M., Lee, S.W. (2011) Effect of platelet-rich plasma on ultraviolet b-induced skin wrinkles in nude mice. Plast Reconstr Surg. 64: 9-31.##
Deplewski, D., Rosenfield, R.L. (2013) Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factors Have Different Effects on Sebaceous Cell Growth and Differentiation. J Endocrinol. 140: 4089-4094. ##
Ferraris, C., Cooklis, M., Polakowska, R.R., Hakke, A.R. (1997) Induction of apoptosis through the PKC pathway in cultured dermal papilla fibroblasts. Exp Cell Res. 234: 37-46.##
James, F., McGavin, D. (2012) Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease. (5th ed.) Penny Rudolph. New York, USA.##
Jo-Ann, E., Frappier, L. (2006) Dellmans Textbook of Veterinary Histology. (6th ed.) Blackwell Publishing Professional. Iowa, USA.##
Takikawa. M., Nakamura, S., Nakamura, S. (2011) Enhanced effect of platelet-rich plasma containing a newcarrier on hair growth. Dermatologic Surgery. 37: 1721-1729.##
Majno, G., Gilmore, V., Leventhal, M. (1967) On the mechanism of vascular leakage caused by histaminetype mediators. A microscopic study in vivo. Circ Res. 21: 833-847.##
Maurer, A.M., Zhou, B., Han, Z.C. (2006) Roles of platelet factor 4 in hematopoiesis and angiogenesis. Growth Factors. 24: 242-252.##
Mishra, A., Woodall, J.Jr., Vieira, A. (2009) Treatment of tendon and muscle using platelet-rich plasma. Clin Sports Med. 28: 113-125.##
Morley, J.E., Silver, A.J. (1995) Nutritional issues in nursing home care. Ann Int Med. 123: 850-9.##
Nemeth, Z.H., Lutz, C.S., Csoka, B., Deitch, E.A., Leibovich, S.J., Gause, W.C., Tone, M., Pacher, P., Vizi E.S., Haskó, G. (2005) Adenosine augments IL-10 production by macrophages through an A2B receptor- mediated posttranscriptional mechanism. J Immunol. 175: 8260-8270.##
Oates, T.W., Rouse, C.A., Cochran, D.L. (1993) Mitogenic effects of growth factors on human periodontal ligament cells in vitro. J Periodontol. 64: 142-148.##
Parratt, J.R., West, G.B. (1957) Release of 5-hydroxytryptamine and histamine from tissues of the rat. J Physiol. 137: 179-192.##
Sclafani, A.P. (2009) Application of platelet-rich fibrin matrix in facial plastic surgery. Facial Plast Surg. 25: 270-276.##
Sieradzki, E., Olejarz, E., Strauss, K., Marzec, A., Mieszkowska, M., Kaluzny, J. (1998) The effect of selenium and vitamin E on the healing process of experimental corneal lesions in the eye of the rabbit. Klin Oczna. 100: 85-88.##
Uebel, CO., da Silva, JB., Cantarelli, D., Martins, P. (2006) The role of platelet plasma growth factors in male pattern baldness surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg. 118: 1458-1466.##
Wang, P., Qu, Y., Man, Y. (2010) Platelet-rich plasma as a scaffold for injectable soft-tissue augmentation. Cytotherapy. 12: 701-702.##
Weiwei, Li., Enomoto, M., Ukegawa, M., Hirai, T., Sotome, S., Wakabayashi, Y., Shinomiya, K., Okawa, A. (2012) Subcutaneous injections of platelet-rich plasma into skin flaps modulate proangiogenic gene expression and improve survival rates. Plast Reconstr Surg. 129: 858-566.##
William, J.B. (1993) Applied Veterinary Histology. (3rd ed.) Baltimore, Maryland, United States.##
Z-Li, J., Choi, H.I., Choi, D., Sohn, K.C., Im, M., Seo, Y.J., Lee, Y.H., Lee, J.H., Lee, Y. (2012) Autologous platelet-rich plasma: a potential therapeutic tool for promoting hair growth. Dermatologic Surgery. 38: 1040-1046.##
Zheng J.Li., Choi, H.I., Choi, D.K., Sohn, K.C., Im, M., Seo, Y.J., Lee, Y.H., Lee, J.H., Lee, Y. (2012) Autologous platelet-rich plasma: a potential therapeutic tool for promoting hair growth. American Society for Dermatologic Surgery. 38: 1040-1046.##