Comparison of the effects extract of rosemary, thyme, propolis, antibiotic and probiotic on the immune system and blood parameters of broilers chickens challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis


Department of Poultry Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: Salmonella Enteritidis in poultry is one of the main causes of illness that can be controlled effectively by some plant compounds, antibiotics and probiotics. OBJECTIVES: This study compares the effect of rosemary, thyme, propolis, antibiotic and probiotic on the immune system and blood parameters of broilers challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis.  Methods: Four hundred and twenty 1-day- old male broiler chicks Cobb strain were divided into seven groups: including rosemary ethanol extract, ethanol extract of propolis, ethanol extract of thyme, and probiotics, virginiamycin (10%) and positive and negative controls, and were reared for 6 weeks. At the end of experiment chickens were sampled and slaughtered. RESULTS: The results showed that plant extracts with probiotics can improve the immune system, reduce serum lipids, reduce harmful bacteria such as Salmonella and E.coli and increase the beneficial bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the herbal extracts and probiotics can be used as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler diets.


Al-Kassie, G.A. (2009) Influence of two plant extracts derived from thyme and cinnamon on broiler performance. Pak Vet J. 29: 169-173.
Baba, E., Nagaishi, S., Fukata, T., Arakava, A. (1991) The role of intestinal microflora on the prevention of Salmonella colonization in gnotobiotic chicks. Poult Sci. 70: 1902-1907.
Babu, U.S., Wiesenfeld, P.L., Jenkins, M.Y. (1998) Effect of dietary rosemary extract on cell-mediated immunity of young rats. Plant Food Hum Nutr. 53: 169-174.
Bolukbasi, S.C., Erhan, M.K., Kaynar, O. (2008) The effect of feeding thyme, sage and rosemary oil on laying hen performance, cholesterol and some proteins ratio of egg yolk and E. coli count in feces. Arch Fu Gef. 72: 231-237.
Case, G.L., He, L., Mo, H., Elson, C.E. (1995) Induction of geranyl pyrophosphate pyrophosphatase activity by cholesterol-suppressive isoprenoids. Lipids. 30: 357-359.
Cook, N.C., Samman, S. (1996) Flavonoids-chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J Nutr Biochem. 7: 66-76.
Corrier, D.E., Deloach, J.R. (1990) Evaluation of cell mediated cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity in young chickens by an interdigital skin test. Poult Sci. 69: 403-408.
Elson, C.E., Yu, S.G. (1994) The chemoprevention of cancer by mevalonate-derived constituents of fruits and vegetables. J Nutr. 124: 607-614.
Falaki, M., Shargh, M.S., Dastar, B., Zerehdaran, S., Khomairi, M. (2011) The investigation of Intestinal Microflora and Growth Response of Young Broilers Given Feed Supplemented with Different Levels of Peobiotic and Prebiotic. J Anim Vet Adv. 10: 385-390.
Fu, X.Q., Liu Z.J. (1997) Microhemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. 97, In: Handbook of Poultry Diseases Detection. Fu, X.Q., Liu, Z.J. (eds.). China Agriculture University Press, Beijingm, China, Total pages.
Fuller, R. (1989) A Review: Probiotics in man and animals. J Apple Bacteriol. 66: 365-378.
Ghazalah, A.A., Ali, A.M. (2008) Rosemary leaves as a dietary supplement for growth in broiler chickens. J Poult Sci. 7: 234-239.
Ghisalberti, E.L. (1979) Propolis: a review. Bee World. 60: 59-84.
Hegazi, A.G., Abdel-Hady, F.K. (2002) Effect of some honey bee products on immune response of chicken infected with virulent NDV. Egyptian propolis: II-Chemical composition, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of East Nile Delta propolis. Z. Naturforsch. 57c: 386-394.
Inooka, S., Kimura, M. (1983) The effect of Bacillus natto in feed on the sheep red blood cell antibody response in chickens. Avian Dis: 1086-1089.
Jang, I., Ko, Y., Kang, S., Lee, C. (2007) Effect of a commercial essential oil on growth performance, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal microflora population in broiler chickens. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 134: 304-315.
Kalandakanond, S., Thngsong, T.B., Chavananikul, V. (2008) Blood haematological cholesterol profile and antibody Titer response of broilers with added probiotic containing both bacteria and yeast or an antibiotic in drinking water. Thai J Vet Med. 38: 45-56.
Khaksefidi, A., Ghoorchi, T. (2006) Effect of probiotic on performance and immunocompetence in broiler chicks. PoultSci. 43: 296-300.
Kim, J., Marshall, M.R., Wei, C. (1995) Antibacterial activities of some essential oil components against five foodborne pathogens. J Agr Food Chem. 43: 2839-2845.
Koenen, M.E., Kramer, J., Van Der Hulst, R., Heres, L., Jeurissen, S.H.M., Boersma, W.J.A. (2004) Immunomodulation by probiotic lactobacilli in layer- and meat-type chickens. Brit Poultry Sci. 45: 355-366.
Lee, K.W., Evert, H., Kappert, H.J., Frehner, M., Losa, R., Beynen, A.C. (2003) Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. Brit Poultry Sci. 44: 450-457.
Mateova, S., Gaálová, M., Šály, J., Fialkovičová, M. (2009) Investigation of the effect of probiotics and potentiated probiotics on productivity of laying hens. Czech J Anim Sci. 54: 24-30.
Midilli, M.M., Kocabagli, N., Muglali, O.H., Turan, N., Yilmaz, H., Cakir, S. (2008) Effects of dietary probiotic and prebiotic supplementation on growth performance and serum IgG concentration of broilers. S Afr J Anim Sci. 38: 21-27.
Miettinen, M., Matikainen, S., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Pirhonen, J., Varkila, K., Kurimoto, M., Julkunen, I. (1998) Lactobacilli and Streptococci induce interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, and Gamma interferon production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells infect. Immun. 66: 6058-6062.
Mohan-Kumar, O.R., Christopher, K.J. (1988)The role of Lactobacillus Sporogenes (Probiotic) as Feed additive. Poult Guide. 25: 37-40.
Nursoy, H., Kaplan, O., Oguz, M., Yilmaz, O. (2004) Effects of varying levels of live yeast culture on yield and some parameters in laying hen diets. Indian Vet J. 81: 59-62.
Panda, A.K., Reddy, M.R., Rama Rao, S.V., Raju, M.V.L.N., Praharaj,  N.K. (2000) Growth, carcass characteristics, immunocompetence and response to Escherichia coli of broilers fed diets with various levels of probiotic. Archiv für Geflügelkunde. 64: 152-156.
Park, Y.K., Koo, M.H., Abreu, J.A.S., Ikegaki, M., Cury, J.A., Rosalen, P.L. (1998) Antimicrobial activity of propolis on oral microorganisms. Curr Microbiol. 36: 24-28.
Patterson, T.A., Barkholder, K.M. (2004) Application of prebiotics and probiotics in Pharmacological screening of some medicinal plants as antimicrobial and feed additives. Poult Sci. 82: 627-637.
Patterson, J.A., Burkholder, K.M. (2003) Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production. Poult Sci. 82: 627-631.
Pearce, B.C., Parker, R.A., Deason, M.E., Qureshi, A.A., Wright, J.J. (1992) Hypocholesterolemic activity of synthetic and natural tocotrienols. J Med Chem. 35: 3595-606.
Peterson, A.L., Qureshi, M.A., Ferket, P.R., Fuller, J.C. (1999) Enhancement of cellular and humoral immunity in young broilers by the dietary supplementation of β-hydroxy- β-methylbutyrate. Immunopharm. Immunot. 21: 307-330.
Rahimi, Sh., Khaksefidi, A. (2006) A comparison between the effects of a probiotic (bioplus 2B) and antibiotic (virginamycin) on the performance of broiler chickens under heat stress condition. I J V R. 7: 23-28.
Rhee, K.J., Jasper, P.J., Sethupathi, P., Shanmugam, M., Lanning, D., Knight, K.L. (2005) Positive selection of the peripheral B cell repertoire in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. J Exp Med. 201: 55-2.
Roura, E., Homedes, J., klasing, K.C. (1992) Perevantion of immunologic stress contributes to the growth permitting ability of dietary antibiotics in chicks. J Nutr. 122: 2383-2390.
Rowghani, E., Arab, M., Akbarian, A. (2007) Effects of a probiotic and other feed additives on performance and immune response of broiler chicks. J Poult Sci. 6: 261-265.
Seeman, P. (1974) Ultrastructure of membrane lesions in immune lysis, osmotic lysis and drug-induced lysis. Fed Proc. 33: 2116-2124.
Seeman, P., Cheng, D., IIes, G.F. (1973) Structure of membrane holes in, osmotic and saponin hemolysis. J Cell Biol. 56: 519-527.
Shoeib, H., Sayed, A., Sotohy, S., Abdel-Ghaffar, S.K. (1996) Response of broiler chicks to probiotic (pronifer) supplementation. Assiut Veterinary Medical Journal. 36: 103-116.
Sosa, S., Baricevic, D., Cinco, M., Padovan, D., Tubaro, A., Della, L.R. (1997) Preliminary investigation on the anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities of propolis. Phar Pharmacol. Lett. 7: 168-171.
Strompfova, V., Marcianakova, M., Gancarcikova, S., Jonecova, Z., Scirankova, L., Guba, P., Koscova, J., Boldizarova, K., Laukova, A. (2005) New probiotic strain Lactobacillus frmentum AD1 and its effect in Japanese quail. Vet Med Czech. 50: 415-420.
Taheri, H.R., Moravej, H., Malakzadegan, A., Tabandeh, F., Zaghari, M., Shivazad, M., Adibmoradi, M. (2010) Efficacy of Pediococcus acidlactici-based probiotic on intestinal coliforms and villus height, serum cholesterol level and performance of broiler chickens. Afr J Biotechnol. 9: 7564-7567.