A survey on prevalence and molecular characteristics of Linguatula serrata isolated from slaughtered sheep and goat in Yazd slaughterhouse


1 Research Center for Food Hygiene and Safety, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

2 Department of Food Hygiene and Safety, School of Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran

3 Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Linguatula serrata is a zoonotic parasite causing Halazoun syndrome in humans. Consumption of raw or semi-cooked infected edible offal induces the infection in human.
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the outbreak and molecular characterization of Linguatula serrata in sheep and goat of Yazd slaughterhouse.
Methods: To determine the prevalence and severity of Linguatula serrata, mesenteric lymph nodes of 200 slaughtered sheep and 200 slaughtered goats in the Yazd industrial slaughterhouse were examined. DNA extraction was performed using commercially DNA extraction kit as manufacturers’ protocol. In order to genetic evaluation, the partially 18srRNA gene as a target was amplified using the specific primer pair which was designed by Primer3 software.The PCR product sent for sequencing and the sequence was BLAST. Data were then analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and by the Pearson correlation test and χ2 at a significance level of 0.01.
Results: In the present study, prevalence of the infection of slaughtered goats and sheep was 25.5% and 22.5%, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between the prevalence of this parasite in different ages and sexes groups (goats and sheep). The results of genetic evaluation showed no variation between this isolate in comparison with the ones in GenBank.
Conclusions: This study was the first report of molecular identification of Linguatula serrate in Iran. Considering high prevalence of infection in domestic animal and lack of knowledge and hygienic practice of the people about consumption of animal offal infection of the people to Linguatula serrata is probable. Therefore, in this context, using appropriate and reliable diagnostic methods for detection of infection in abattoirs as well as educating people on the proper use of animal offal is effective steps to prevent this disease.


Alzohairy, M.A. (2014) Letter to the editor. J Food Qual Hazards Control. 1: 35.##
Akhondzadeh Basti, A., Haddadzadeh, H., Tajik, H., Hajimohammadi, B., Shirali, S., Hemati M., Ahmadiara, E. (2011) Effect of different temperature conditions on survival time of Linguatula serrata nymphs. HVM Bioflux. 3: 76-82. ##
AkhondzadehBasti, A., Hajimohamadi, B. (2010) Principles of meat and abattoirs hygiene. First edition. Iran, University of Tehran Press. 93-95: 121-124. ##
Altschul, S.F., Madden, T.L., Schäffer, A.A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., Lipman, DJ. (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucleic Acids Res. 25: 3389-402. ##
Anaraki Mohammadi, G., Mobedi, I., Ariaiepour, M., Pourmohammadi, Z., Bidaki, M.Z. (2008) A case report of Nasopharyngeal Linguatuliasis in Tehran, Iran and characterization of the isolated Linguatula serrata. Iran J Parasitol. 3: 53-5. ##
Bamorovat, M., Zarandi, M.B., Mostafavi, M., Kheirandish, R., Sharifi, I., Radfar, M.H. (2013) The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaughterhouse, Iran. J Parasit Dis. 38: 374-377. ##
Boughattas, S., Salehi, R. (2014) Molecular approaches for detection and identification of foodborne pathogens. J Food Qual Hazards Control. 1: 1-6. ##
Eslami, G.,  Hajimohammadi, B., Gholamrezaei, M., Khalatbary, S., Zohortabar, A., Ardian M. (2014) Practical Approach for DNA Extraction of Food Born Linguatula Serrata Nymphs: An Analytical Method. Galen Med J. 3: 115-9. ##
Haddadzadeh, H., Athari, S., Abedini, R., Nabian, S., Haji-Mohamadi, B. (2010) One-Humped Camel) Camelus dromedarius) Infestation with Linguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran. Iran J Arthropod Borne Dis. 4: 54-59. ##
Hajimohammadi, B., Akhondzadeh Basti,  A., Shirali, S. (2012) Impact of Sodium Chloride and Heat on Survival Time of Linguatula Serrata Nymphs in vitro: An Experimental Study. J Health Res. 1: 54-61. ##
Khalil, G., Haddad, C., Otrock, Z.K., Jaber, F., Farra, A. (2012) Halzoun, an allergic pharyngitis syndrome in Lebanon: the trematode Dicrocoelium dendriticum as an additional cause. Acta Trop. 125: 115-118. ##
Khalil, G.M., Schacher, J.F. (1965) Linguatula serrata in relation to halzoun and the marrara syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 14: 736-46. ##
Koehsler, M., Walochnik, J., Georgopoulos, M., Pruente, C., Boeckeler, W., Auer, H.,  Barisani-Asenbauer, T. (2011) Linguatula serrata tongue worm in human eye, Austria. Emerg Infect Diseases. 17: 870-2. ##
Lazo, R., Hidalgo, E., Lazo, J., Bermeo, A., Llaguno, M., Murillo, J., Teixeira, VP. (1999) Ocular linguatuliasis in Ecuador: case report and morphometric study of the larva of Linguatula serrata. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 60: 405-9. ##
Ma, KC., Qiu, M.H., Rong, Y.L. (2002) Pathological differentiation of suspected cases of pentastomiasis in China. Trop Med Int Health. 7: 166-77. ##
Meshgi, B., Asgarian, O. (2003) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata infestation in stray dogs of Shahrekord, Iran. J Vet Med B. 50: 466-7. ##
Nourollahi Fard, SR., Kheirandish, R.,  Norouzi-Asl, E., Fathi S. (2010) The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in goats slaughtered in Kerman slaughterhouse, Kerman, Iran. Vet Parasitol. 171: 76-8. ##
Nourollahi Fard, SR., Kheirandish, R., Norouzi Asl,  E., Fathi, S. (2011) Mesenteric and mediastinal lymph node infection with Linguatula serrata nymphs in sheep slaughtered in Kerman slaughterhouse, southeast Iran. Trop Anim Health Prod. 43: 1-3. ##
Oryan, A., Sadjjadi, S., Mehrabani, D., Rezaei, M. (2008) The status of Linguatula serrata infection of stray dogs in Shiraz, Iran. Comp Clin Path. 17: 55-60. ##
Razavi, S., Shekarforoush, s.s., Izadi, M. (2004) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in goats in Shiraz, Iran. Small Ruminant Res. 54: 213-7. ##
Rezaei, F., Tavassoli, M., Javdani, M. (2012) Prevalence and morphological characterizations of Linguatula serrata nymphs in camels in Isfahan Province, Iran. Vet Res Forum. 3: 61-65. ##
Rezaei, F., Tavassoli, M., Mahmoudian, A. (2011) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata infection among dogs (definitive host) and domestic ruminants (intermediate host) in the North West of Iran. Vet Med (Praha).11: 561-7. ##
Rezaei, H., Ashrafihelan, J., Nematollahi, A., Mostafavi, E. (2012) The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in goats slaughtered in Tabriz, Iran. J Parasit Dis. 36: 200-2. ##
SadeghiDehkordi, Z., Pajohi-Alamoti, M.R., Azami, S., Bahonar, A.R. (2014) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata in lymph nodes of small ruminants: case from Iran. Comp Clin Pathol. 23: 785-788. ##
Sajjadi, S., Ardehali, S., Shojaei, A. (1998) A case report of Linguatula serrata in human pharynx from Shiraz, southern Iran. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 12: 193-4. ##
Salavati, Z, Chalehchaleh, A, Rezaei, F. (2017) Parasitic infections in raw vegetables of Kermanshah, Western iran and their relation with season and washing procedures. J Food Qual Hazards Control. 4: 37-41. ##
Shahbazi, Y, Chalehchaleh, A. (2017) Prevalence of common food-borne parasitic diseases in slaughtered ruminants in west part of Iran. J Food Qual Hazards Control. 4: 85-9. ##
Shekarforoush, S.S., Razavi, S., Izadi, M. (2004) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in sheep in Shiraz, Iran. Small Rumin Res. 52: 99-101. ##
Siavoshi, M., Asmar, M., Vatankhah, A. (2002) Nasopharyngeal pentastomiasis (Halzoun): report of 3 cases. Iran J Med Sci. 27: 191-2. ##
Soulsby, EJL. (1982) Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Demestocated Animals. (7th ed.) England, London, Bailliere Tindall. ##
Tabibian, H., Yousofi Darani, H., Bahadoran-Bagh-Badorani, M., Farahmand Soderjani, M., Enayatinia, H. (2012) A case report of Linguatula serrata infestation from rural area of Isfahan city, Iran. Adv Biomed Res. 1: 42-42. ##
Tajik, H., Tavassoli, M., Dalir-Naghadeh, B., Danehloipour, M. (2006) Mesenteric lymph nodes infection with Linguatula serrata nymphs in cattle. Iran J Vet Res. 7: 82-7. ##
Tavasoli, M., Tajik, H., Dalir-Naghadeh, B., Lotfi, H.(2007) Study of Linguatula serrata infestation in mesenteric lymph nodes of goats in slaughterhouse of Urmia, Iran. SCI Res Iran Vet J. 2: 85-9. ##
Tavassoli, M., Tajic, H., Dalir-Naghadeh, B., Hariri, F. (2007) Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs and gross changes of infected mesenteric lymph nodes in sheep in Urmia, Iran. Small Ruminant Res. 72: 73-6. ##
Yagi, H., El- Bahari, S., Mohamed, H.A., Ahmed, E.R.S., Mustafa, B., Mahmoud, M., Saad, MB., Sulaiman, SM., el Hassan, AM. (1996) The Marrara syndrome: a hypersensitivity reaction of the upper respiratory tract and buccopharyngeal mucosa to nymphs of Linguatula serrata. Acta Trop. 62: 127-34. ##
Yakhchali, M., Athari, S., Hajimohammadi, B., Raeisi, M. (2009) prevalence of linguatula serrata in the ruminants slaugtered in urmia slauhterhouse. Iran J Vet Res. 64: 329-32. ##
Yeghaneh Moghadam, A., Talari, S.A., Dehghani, R. (2001) A case of Human Linguatula serrata infestation in Kashan. J Kerman Uni Med Sci. 8: 175-8. ##