The Effect of Betaine Supplementation on Gene Expression and Activities of Lipogenic Enzymes, and Lipid Levels in Liver and Blood of Broiler Chicks

Document Type : Basic Sciences


1 Department of Animal Sciences, Behbahan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Behbahan, Iran

2 2Department of Animal Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Animal Sciences, Varamin-Pishva Branch, Islamic Azad University, Varamin, Iran

4 Department of Animal Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: Betaine is a derivative of three methylates of glycine amino acids, found in the body of many animals. Objectives: The study was conducted to investigate the effects of betaine supplementation in the diet on gene expression and activities of lipogenic enzymes, and lipid levels of blood and liver in broilers. Methods: A total of 320 broilers were evaluated (Ross 308) in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates, with the diets consisted of the control treatment which did not use the betaine supplementation. The second, third and fourth treatments contained 0.05, 0.08 and 0.11% betaine hydrochloride 98%, respectively. Results: Betaine supplementation to the diet has no significant effect on lipoprotein lipase gene expression, and the activities of enzyme Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase (p> 0.05). Betaine supplementation caused a significant decrease in liver cholesterol and triglyceride chicks fourth treatment (containing betaine hydrochloride 0.11 percent) compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusions: In general, the results show that in broilers lipoprotein lipase gene expression and the activities of enzyme Acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase are less influenced by betaine.


Baghaei, M., Eslami, M., Chaji, M., Mamoue, M., Bojarpour, M. (2011) Effect of different levels of DL-methionine replaced with betafin on some of blood parameters on broiler chickens. J Anim Vet Adv. 10: 777-779.##
Braun, J. E. A., Severson, D. L. (1992) Regulation of the synthesis, processing and translocation of lipoprotein lipase. Biochem J. 15; 287 (Pt2): 337-347.##
Chen, K. L., Hsieh, T. Y., Chiou, P. W. S. (2006) Caponization effects on growth performance and lipid metabolism in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian Australas J Anim Sci. 19(3): 438-443.##
Chomczynski, P., Mackey, K. (1995) Short technical report. Modification of the TRIZOL reagent procedure for isolation of RNA from Polysaccharide-and proteoglycan-rich sources. Biotechniques. 19(6): 942-5.##
Claire D’ Andre, H., Paul, W., Shen, X., Jia, X., Zhang, R., Sun, L., Zhang, X. (2013) Identification and characterization of genes that control fat deposition in chickens. J Anim Sci Biotechnol. 4(1): 43.##
Cooper, D. A., Stein, J. C., Strieleman, P. J., Bensadoun, A. (1989) Avian adipose lipoprotein lipase: cDNA sequence and reciprocal regulation of mRNA levels in adipose and heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1008:92-101.##
Craig, S. A. S. (2004) Betaine in human nutrition. Am J Clin Nutr. 80(3): 539-549.##
Dean, D., Daugaard, J. R, Young, M. E., Saha, A., Vavvas, D., Asp, S., Kiens, B., Kim, K. H., Witters, L., Richter, E. A., Ruderman, N. (2000) Exercise diminishes the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in human muscle. Diabetes. 49: 1295-1300.##
Ding, F., Pan, Z., Kou, J., Li, L., Xia, L., Hu, S., Liu, H., Wang, J. (2012) De novo lipogenesis in the liver and adipose tissues of ducks during early growth stages after hatching. Comp. Biochem. Physiol B. Biochem Mol Biol. 163(1): 154-160.##
Duncan, D. B. (1955) Multiple range and multiple F test.  Biometrics. 11: 1-42.##
Eklund, M., Bauer, E., Wamatu, J., Mosenthin, R. (2005) Potential nutritional and physiological functions of betaine in livestock. Nutr Res Rev. 18(1): 31-48.##
Esteve-Garcia, E., Mack, S. (2000) The effect of DL-methionine and betaine on growth performance and carcass characteristics in broilers. Anim Feed Sci Tech. 87(1): 85-93.##
Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane Stanley, G. H. (1957)A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J Biol Chem. 226(1): 497-509.##
Friedewald, W. T., Levy, R. I., Fredrickson, D. S. (1972) Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 18(6): 499-502.##
Girard, J., Perdereau, D., Foufelle, F., Prip-buus, C., Ferre, P. (1994) Regulation of lipogenic enzyme gene expression by nutrients and hormones. FASEB. J. 8(1): 36-42.##
Griffin, H. D., Guo, K. D., Windsor, D., Butterwith, S. C. (1992) Adipose-tissue lipogenesis and fat deposition in leaner broiler-chickens. J Nutr. 122(2): 363-368.##
Griffin, H. D., Butterwith, S. C., Goddard, C. (1987) Contribution of lipoprotein lipase to differences in fatness between broiler and layer-strain chickens. Br Poult Sci. 28(2): 197-206.##
Hazelwod, R. L. (1971) Endocrine control of avian carbohydrate metabolism. Poult Sci. 50(1): 9-18.##
Hillgartner, F. B., Charron, T., Chesnut, K. A. (1996) Alterations in nutritional status regulate acetyl-CoA carboxylase expression in avian liver by a transcriptional mechanism. Biochem J. 1; 319(Pt 1): 263-268.##
Hillgartner, F. B., Salati, L. M., Goodridge, A. G. (1995) Physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in nutritional regulation of fatty acid synthesis. Physiol Rev. 75(1): 47-76.##
Hillard, B. L., Lundin, P., Clarke, S. D. (1980) Esentiality of dietary carbohydrate for maintenance of liver lipogenesis in the chick. J Nutr. 110(8): 1533-1542.##
Huang, Q. C., Xu, Z. R., Han, X. Y., Li, W. F. (2008)  Effect  of  dietary  betaine supplementation on  lipogenic  enzyme  activities  and  fatty  acid synthase  mRNA  expression  in  finishing pigs.  Anim Feed Sci Tech. 140(3): 365-375.##
Jahanian, R., Rahmani, H. R. (2008) The effect of dietary fat level on the response of broiler chicks to betaine and choline supplements. J Biol Sci. 8(2): 362-367.##
Kersten, S. (2001) Mechanisms of nutritional and hormonal regulation of lipogenesis. EMBO. Rep. 2(4): 282-286.##
Konca, Y., Kinkpinar, F., Mert, S., Yaylak, E. (2008) Effect of betaine on performance carcass, bone and blood characteristics of broilers during natural summer temperature. J Anim Vet Adv. 7(8): 930-937.##
Leclercq, B. (1984) Adipose tissue metabolism and its control in birds. Poult Sci. 63(10): 2044-2054.##
Leung, T., Bauman, D. (1975) In vivo studies of the site of fatty acid synthesis in the rabbit. Int J Biochem. 6: 801 -805.##
Lien, T. F., Jan, D. F. (1999) The effect on the lipid metabolism of Tsaiya ducks when high levels of choline and methionine are added to duck´s diet. Asian- Australas J Anim Sci. 12(7): 1090-1095.##
Livak, K.J., Schmittengent, T.D. (2001) Methods analysis of relative gene expression data using real time quantitative PCR and the 2-ΔΔCt. Methods. 25(4): 402-408.##
Maghoul, M. A., NassiriMoghadam, H., Kermanshahi, H., DaneshMesgaran, M. (2009) The effect different levels of choline and betaine on broiler performance carcass characteristics. J Anim Vet Adv. 8(1): 125-128.##
McClelland, G., Zwingelstein, G., Weber, J. M., Brichon, G. (1995) Lipid composition of tissue plasma in two mediteranean fishes, the gilt-head sea bream (Chrysophyrys auratus) and the European seabass (Dicentraches labrax). Can J Fish Aquat Sci. 52: 161-170.##
McDevitt, R. M., Mack, S., Wallis, I. R. (2000) Can betaine partially replace or enhance the effect of methionine by improving broiler growth and carcas e characteristics? Br Poult Sci. 41(4): 473-480.##
Nepokroef, C. M., Lakshmanan, M. R., Porter, J. W. (1975) Fatty acid synthase from rat liver. Methods Enzymol. 35: 37-44.##
Numa, S., Nakanishi, S., Hashimoto, T., Iritani, N., Okozaki, T. (1971) Role of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in the control of fatty acid synthesis.  Vitam Horm. 28: 213-243.##
Pothoven, M. A., Beitz, D. C. (1975) Changes in fatty acid synthesis and lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue from fasted and fasted-refed steers. J Nutr. 105(8): 1055-1061.##
Qureshi, A. A., Burger, W. C., Prentic, N., Bird, H. R., Sunde, M. L. (1980) Regulation of lipid metabolism in chicken liver by dietary cereals. J Nutr. 110(3): 388-393.##
Romanowicz, L., Jaworski, S., Galewska, Z., Gogiel, T. (2008) Separation and determination of fatty acids from lipid fractions by high-performance liquid chromatography: cholesterol esters of umbilical cord arteries.  Toxicol Mech Methods. 18(6):509-513.##
Saadoun, A., Leclercq, B. (1983) Comparison of in vivo fatty acid synthesis of the genetically lean and fat chickens. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 75(4): 641-644.##
Sanz, M.C., Lopez-Bote, J., Menoyo, D., Bautista, J. M. (2000) Abdominal fat deposition and fatty acid synthesis are lower and β-oxidation is higher in broiler chickens fed diets containing unsaturated rather than saturated fat. J Nutr. 130(12): 3034-3037.##
Sato, K., Akiba, Y. (2002) Lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue is little modified by age and nutritional state in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 81(6): 846-852.##
Sato, K., Sook, S. H., Kamada, T. (2010) Tissue distribution of lipase genes related to triglyceride metabolism in laying hens (Gallus gallus). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 155(1): 62-66.##
Sato, K., Akiba, Y., Chida, Y., Takahashi, K. (1999) Lipoprotein hydrolysis and fat accumulation in Chicken adipose tissues are reduced by chronic administration of lipoprotein lipase monoclonal antibodies. Poult Sci. 78(9): 1286-1291.##
Saunderson, C. L., Mackinlay, J. (1990) Changes in body-weight, composition and hepatic enzyme activities in response to dietary methionine, betaine and choline levels in growing chicks. Br J Nutr. 63(2): 339-349. ##
Shillabeer, G., Hornford, J., Forden, J. M, Wong, N. C. W, Russell, J. C., Lau, D. C. W. (1992) Fatty acid synthase and adipsin mRNA levels in obese and lean JCR:LA-cp rats: effect of diet. J Lipid Res. 33(1): 31-39.##
Simon, J. (1999) Choline, betaine and methionine interactions in chickens, pigs and fish (including crustaceans). World Poult Sci J. 55(4): 353-374.##
Sparks, J. D., Sparks, C. E. (1994) Insulin regulation of triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein synthesis and secretion. Biochim Biophys Acta. 17; 1215(1-2): 9-23.##
Tanakara, K., Kitahara, K., Shigeno, K. (1979) Effect dietry protein level on lipid metabolism in growing chicks. Jpn J Zootechn Sci. 50: 44-54.##
Thomson, L. W., Zalik, S. (1981) Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase activity in developing seedlings. Plant Physiol. 67(4): 655-661.##
Wolf, G. (1996) Nutritional and hormonal regulation of fatty acid synthase. Nutr Rev. 54(4 Pt 1): 122-123##.
Xing, J., Jiang, Y. (2012) Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on mRNA level of lipogenesis genes and on promoter CpG methylation of fatty acid synthase (FAS) gene in laying hens. Afr J Biotechnol. 11(24): 6633-6640.##
Xing, J., Kang, L., Jiang, Y. (2011) Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on lipogenesis gene expression and CpG methylation of lipoprotein lipase gene in broilers. Mol Biol Rep. 38(3): 1975-1981.
Xing, J., Kang, L., Hu, Y., Xu, Q., Zhang, N., Jiang, Y. (2009) Effect of dietary betaine supplementation on mRNA expression and promoter CpG methylation of lipoprotein lipase gene in laying hens. Jpn Poult Sci. 46(3): 224-228.##
Yao, Z., McLeod, R. S. (1994) Synthesis and secretion of hepatic apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 13; 1212(2): 152-166.##
Yao, Z., Vance, D.E. (1989) Head group specificity in the requirement of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis for very low density lipoprotein secretion from cultured hepatocytes. J Biol Chem. 5; 264(19): 11373-11380.##
Zi-Rong, X., J ie, F. G. (2002) Lipotropy effect of betaine in swine. Acta Zool Sin. 48(3): 358-362.##
Zou, X. T., Ma, Y. L., Xu, Z.R. (1998) Effects of betaine and thyroprotein on laying performance and approach to mechanism of the effects in hens. Acta Agric Zhejiangensis. 10: 144-149.##