Determination of Mean Lethal Concentration (LC50) and Anaesthetic Effect of Topped Lavender Essential Oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Juvenile

Document Type : Aquatic Animal Health Management


1 1Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Fisheries, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

2 Department of Aquatic Animal Health and Diseases, Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute (IFSRI), Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Tehran, Iran


BACKGROUND: In recent years, medicinal plants have become
an important option for use in aquaculture industry. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine mean
lethal concentration (LC50) and investigated the anesthetic effect
of Topped lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) on common carp
(Cyprinus carpio) juveniles. Methods:
Mean lethal concentration of essential oil was calculated based on the OECD
(Organization Economic Cooperation and Development) standard in static system.
For determining  LC50, 150
common carp juveniles with mean body weight of 26.96 ± 1.98 g were used in 6
groups and one control group and each group with three replications (7
juveniles were used for each replication). After Compatibility period (about 2
weeks), juveniles were exposed to different concentrations including 71.12,
72.11, 73.11, 74.13, 75.16 mg/l that were calculated by logarithmic formula.
Juvenile behavioral changes and mortality were recorded in the time period at
24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after exposed to Topped lavender essential oil.
Determination of Topped lavender essential oil anesthetic effect was done in 6
groups (with 3 replicates), as 10 fish exposed to increasing concentrations
including 0 (control), 160, 165, 170, 175 and 180 mg/l. Results: Mean lethal concentration
(LC50) after 96 hours was obtained 99.70 mg/l. The lowest time for completion
of anesthesia (stage 3 anesthesia) was obtained at a concentration of 170 mg/l
with 3.74± 0.35 min and the full recovery of this concentration was obtained at
3.91±0.55 min. The results showed that the best anaesthetic concentration of
Topped lavender essential oil was 170 mg/l. Conclusions: It seems that Topped lavender essential oil
could be used as anesthetic agent


Abtahi, B., Shariph poor, A., Aghajanpoor, M., Rasooli, A., Faghih Zadeh, S., Omid Baigi, R., Mohammad Nazari, R. (2002) Compared LC50 clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllata) and MS222  in  Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprimus carpio). Iran Sci Fish. J. 11(3): 1-12.##
Akhlaghi, M., Mirab Brojerdi, M. (1999) Anesthetic effect of clove tree and LC50 determination in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Vet Res. 54 (2): 49-52.##
Bagheri, M., Soltani, R., Haj Hashemi, R., Sohailipoor, S., and Asghari, GH. (2013) Effect of Lavender Essential Oil on Pain Using Aromatherapy. J Islamic and Iran Traditional Med. 3(4): 483-488.##
Burka, J. F., Hammell, K. L., Horsberg, T. E., Johnson, G. R., Rainnie, D. J., Speare, D. J. (1997) Drugs in salmonid aquaculture - a review. J Vet Pharmacol Ther. 20: 333-349.##
Cunha, M. A., Barros, F. M., Lima Veek, P., Heinzmann, B. M., Loro, V. L. (2010) Essential oil of Lippia alba: A new anesthetic for silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen. Short communication. Aquaculture. 306: 403-406.##
Ghaffari, M., Khosravani Zadeh, A. (2012) Effect of clove oil (Eugenia cairyophillata) essence loaded on iron nanoparticles on aminotransferase enzymes and some tissues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Comp Pathol. 9 (4): 827-836.##
Gomes, L. C., Chiparri-Gomes, A. R., Lopes, N. P., Roubach, R., Araujo-Lima, C. A. R. M. (2001) Efficacy of benzocaine as an anaesthetic in juvenile tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. J World Aquac Soc. 32: 426-431.##
Griffiths, S. P. (2000) The use of clove oil as an anaesthetic and method for sampling  intertidal rockpool fishes. J Fish Biol. 57(6): 1453-1464.##
Grush, J., Noakes,  D. L. G.,  Moccia,  R. D. (2004) The efficacy of clove oil as an anesthetic for the zebrafish, Danio rerio (Hamilton). Zebrafish. 1(1): 46-53.##
Hajek, G. J., Keyszejko, B., Dziaman R. (2006) The anaesthetic effect of clove oil on common carp,Cyprinus carpio L. Acta Ichthyol. Piscat. 36(2): 93-97.##
Juergens, U. R., Stober, M., Kleuver, T., Vetter, H. (1998)  Antiinflammatory effects of euclyptol (1,8-cineole) in bronchial asthma: inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood monocytes exvivo. European J Med Res. 3: 407-412.##
Keene, J. L., Noakes, D. L. G., Moccia, R. D., Soto, C. G. (1998) The efficacy of clove oil as an anaesthetic for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Aquac Res. 29(2): 89-101.##
Macova, S., Dolezelova, P., Plhalova, L., Pistekova, V., Svobodova, Z. (2011) The acute toxicity of clove oil to fish Danio rerio and Poecilia reticulate. Acta Vet Brno. 80: 305-308.##
Mohammadi Arani, M. (2006) Study on anesthetization of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) fingerlings using clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) oil. Iran J Med Aromat Plants. 22(3): 188-192.##
Mousavi, S. M., Majdi Nasab, E., Yavari, V., Rajabzadeh Ghatarami, E., Razi Jalali, M. (2012) Determination of toxicity and mean lethal concentration (LC50) of Eugenol on Barbus sharpey Iran. J Med Aromat Plants. 29 (3): 551-560.##
Mousavi, S. M., Mirzargar, S. S., Ebrahim Zadeh, H., Khosravi, A., Bahonar, A., Ahmadi, M. R. (2009) Evaluation of antifungal activity of new combined essential oils in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. J Fish Aquat Sci. 4(2): 103-110.##
Nasiri moghaddam, H., Bidar, N., Hassanabadi. (2012) The effect of the effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) essential oil on performance and blood metabolites of broiler chicks. Iran. J Animal Sci Res. 4 (2): 115-121.##
Okey, I. B., Keremah, R. I., Gabriel, U. U. (2018) The effcacy of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) powder as anaesthesia on African catfshes (Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis) fingerlings. J Aquac Mar Biol. 7(4): 182-188.##
Pirhonen, J., Schreck, C. B. (2003) Effects of anaesthesia with MS-222, clove oil and CO2 on feed intake and plasma cortisol in steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture. 220: 507-514.##
Roohi, Z., Imanpoor, M. (2014) The efficacy of the oils of spearmint and methyl salicylate as new anesthetics and their effect on glucose levels in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) juveniles. Aquaculture. 437: 327-332.##
Ross, L.G., Ross, B. (2008) Anesthetic and Sedative Techniques for Aquatic Animals. (3rd ed.)Blackwell Publishing Editorial Office, London, UK. 221 p. ##
Sadigh Eteghad, S., Ghavami, S., Mortazavi, J., Mirzaei, H. (2008) Comparative survey on anesthetizing effects of medicinal herbs Valerian officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Papaver somniferum and Papaver bracteatum on gold fish (Carassius auratus). Iran Sci Fish J. 17 (1): 91-98.##
Saeedi, K. A., Sayedi, F. S., Kiani, M. (2016) Evaluation of essential oil content and composition of some improved cultivars of chamomile, moldavian dragonhead and fennel in Shahrekord climate condition. Agric Crop Manage. 17(4): 1101-1109.##
Santos, F. A., Rao, V. S. (2000) Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of 1.8-cineole a terpenoid oxide present in many plant essential oils. J Phytother Res. 4:240-244.##
Sharifphpoor, A., Soltani, M., Abdolhay, H., Ghaumi, R. (2002) Effect of clove oil (Eugenia caryophyllata) at different pH and ºC in comoon carp (Cyprinus carpio) finger lings. Iran Sci Fish J. 11(4): 59-74.##
Sharif Rohani, M., Haghighi, M., Assaeian, H. (2011) The lethal concentration (LC50) of Zataria multiflora essential oil in fries of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Iran Sci Fish J. 20(2): 89-96.##
Soltani, M., Omidbeigi, R., Rezvani, S., Mehrabi, M. R., Chitsaz, H. (2001) Study of Anesthetic effects induced
by clove flower (Eugenia caryophillata) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under various water quality conditions. J Fac Vet Med. 56 (4): 85-89.##
Tamaru, C. S. C. C., Trickand, W. J., Gerald, F. (1995) Clove oil, minyak cengkeh, a natural fish anesthices sustainable aquaculture. Voail. Proceeding of the pacon conference on sustainable Aquaculture. 955: 265-371.##
Taha Nejad, M., Barzegar, M., Sahari,. M. A., Naghdi badi, H. A. (2012) Evaluation of antioxidant of essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia) in crude Soybean oil system. J Med Aromat Plants. 11 (1): 127-140.##
Vakilian, K., Karamat, A., Mousavi, A., Shariati, M., Ajami, M.E., and Atarha, M. (2011) The effect of Lavender essence via inhalation method on labor pain. Shahrekord. J Uni Med Sci. 14(1): 34-40.##
Velisek, J., Svobodova, Z., Piackova, V., Groch, L., Nepej CHalova, L. (2005) Effects of clove oil anaesthesia on common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Vet Med-Czech. 50(6): 269- 275.##
Weber, R. A., Peleteiro, J. B., García Martín, L. O., Aldegunde, M. (2009) The efficacy of 2-Phenoxyethanol, metomidate, clove oil and MS-222 as anaesthetic agents in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858). Aquaculture. 288: 147-150.##
Yazdani, D., Jamshidi, A. H., Mojab, F. (2002) Comparison amount of menthol and essential oil in peppermint (Mentha piperita) plant in different parts of the country. J Med Plants. 3: 73-78.##
Yeganeh, S., Maleki, P. (2012) Comparison of anesthetic effects produced by extracts of Valeriana officinalis, Melissa officinalis and Salvia officinalis on common carp (Cyprinus carpio). J Aquat exploit Cultiv. 2(2): 65-77.##
Zahl, I. H., Kiesling, A., Smuelsen, O. B., Hensen, M. K. (2009) Anaesthesia of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Effect of pre-anaesthetic sedation, and importance of body weight, temperature and stress. Aquaculture. 295: 52-59.##