اثر سطح مصرف و اندازه ذرات پوسته جو بر مورفولوژی و جمعیت باکتریایی روده جوجه های گوشتی

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 گروه علوم پایه، دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

زمینه مطالعه: فیبر نامحلول موجود در خوراک طیور اغلب به عنوان عاملی نامطلوب در نظر گرفته می‌شود که ارزش غذایی جیره را کاهش می‌دهد، اما شواهدی نیز در دست است که این نوع فیبر باعث بهبود صفات تولیدی می‌شود. هدف: پوسته خارجی جو از نظر اثر بر عملکرد تولیدی جوجه گوشتی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. روش کار: در این آزمایش از 200 قطعه جوجه گوشتی از سویه راس 308 در قالب یک طرح کاملاً تصادفى با 5 تیمار و 4 تکرار استفاده شد. جیره‌ها شامل جیره شاهد فاقد پوسته جو و چهار جیره آزمایشی حاوی پوسته جو در دو سطح 75/0% یا 5/1%، هر یک در دو اندازه کوچکتر از mm‌1 و یا بین mm‌1 تا 2 بودند. نتایج: نوع جیره اثری بر میزان مصرف خوراک در گروههای آزمایشی نداشت. بهترین افزایش وزن زنده و ضریب تبدیل خوراک در جوجه‌های گوشتی تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی 5/1% پوسته جو با اندازه ذرات mm‌2-1 ثبت شد و در کل دوره آزمایش، تفاوت مشاهده شده با گروه شاهد معنی‌دار بود (05/0>p). مصرف فیبر منجر به افزایش تعداد سلول گابلت در ژژنوم در مقایسه با گروه شاهد شد (05/0>p). بر خلاف انتظار، مصرف پوسته جو باعث کاهش ارتفاع پرز در مقایسه با گروه شاهد در همه بخش‌های روده کوچک شد (05/0>p). در ژژنوم، عمق کریپت جوجه‌های شاهد بیشتر از جوجه‌های تغذیه شده با 5/1% پوسته جو با اندازه ذرات کوچکتر از 1 mm بود (05/0>p). نسبت عمق کریپت به ارتفاع پرز در ژژنوم جوجه‌های شاهد بیشتر از پرنده‌های تغذیه شده با جیره حاوی گروه 5/1% پوسته جو با اندازه ذرات کوچکتر از mm‌1 بود (05/0>p). در ایلئوم، جوجه‌های تغدیه شده با جیره شاهد حاوی تعداد کمتری لاکتوباسیلوس و تعداد بیشتری اشریشیا‌کولی در مقایسه با اکثر تیمارهای حاوی پوسته جو بودند (05/0>p). نتیجه گیری نهایی: سطح 5/1 ٪ پوسته جو با اندازه ذرات mm‌2-1 موجب بهبود صفات تولیدی جوجه‌های گوشتی گردید، ضمن آنکه وارد نمودن مقادیر تا 5/1% از پوسته جو به عنوان یک منبع لیگنوسلولزی به جیره جوجه‌های گوشتی باعث تحریک رشد لاکتوباسیلوس‌ها و کاهش تعداد اشریشیا‌کولی در مجرای گوارش شد و این تغییر ترکیب میکروفلور روده پیشنهاد کننده اثر پری بیوتیکی پوسته جو در مجرای گوارش جوجه‌های گوشتی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of dietary inclusion level and particle size of barley hulls on intestinal morphology and bacteria population in broiler chickens

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Afra 1
  • Bahman Navidshad 1
  • Masoud Adibmoradi 2
  • Farzad Mirzaei Aghjeh Gheshlagh 1
  • Nemat Hedayat Ivarigh 1
1 Department of Animal Science, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

BACKGROUND: The insoluble fiber content of poultry feeds is often considered as an unfavorable factor which reduces the nutritive value of diet. OBJECTIVES: The effects of barley hulls on performance traits of broiler chickens were evaluated. METHODS: The experiment was carried out using 200 Ross 308 broiler chickens in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates. The experimental diets  consisted of a control hulls-free diet and four diets containing 0.75 or 1.5 percent barley hulls with particle sizes of less than 1 mm or between 1-2 mm. RESULTS: The dietary type did not affect feed intake of the experimental groups. In the whole the experimental period, the weight gain and feed conversion ratio in the broiler chickens feed, the diet that contained 1.5% barley hulls with 1-2 mm particle size improved compared to the control group (p<0.05). In the jejunum, fiber feeding resulted in an increased goblet cell number as compared to the control group (p<0.05). Unexpectedly, barley hulls feeding reduced the villi height compared to the control group (p<0.05). In jejunum the crypt depth in control birds was more than the treatment fed 1.5% barley hulls with less than 1 mm particle size (p<0.05). The ratio of crypt depth to villus height in control group was more than the birds fed the diet that contained 1.5% barley hulls with less than 1 mm particle size (p< 0.05). In ileum the chickens fed the control diet had more lactobacillus and less Escherichia coli than the majority of the treatment fed barley hulls. CONCLUSIONS: Inclusion of 1.5% barley hulls with particle size of 1-2 mm in diet improved performance traits of broiler chickens. On the other hand, using 1.5% barley hulls as a lignocelluloses source increased lactobacillus growth and reduced Escherichia coli population. This alteration in intestinal micro flora suggests a prebiotic effect for barley hulls in the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Particle size
  • Barley hulls
  • broiler
  • intestine morphology
  • ileum bacteria population
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