مقایسه اثر منابع اسیدهای چرب اشباع و غیر اشباع در دوره آماده به زایش بر فعالیت تخمدانی گاوهای شیری هلشتاین

نویسندگان

1 گروه علوم دامی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج-ایران

2 گروه علوم دامی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان-ایران

3 دانشکده دامپزشکی دانشگاه تهران، تهران-ایران

چکیده

زمینه مطالعه: استفاده از منابع مختلف چربی و اثر اسیدهای چرب بر روی عملکرد  تخمدان از موضوعاتی روز مراکز علمی و تحقیقاتی میباشد. هدف: هدف از انجام این آزمایش بررسی تأثیر تغذیه منابع مختلف چربی (از لحاظ پروفایل اسید چرب) در دوره آماده به زایش  بر سنجش جمعیت و اندازه فولیکولهای تخمدان و فراسنجههای خونی مرتبط با وضعیت انرژی بدن در پس از زایش در گاوهای هلشتاین بود. روش کار: بدین منظور 15 رأس گاو شیری هلشتاین انتطار به زایش (حدود 30 روز به زایش) انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی در هریک از 3 تیمارآزمایشی توزیع گشتند که شامل 1) کنترل ( منبع کربو هیدراتی)، 2)  مکمل پودر چربی (محتوی اسیدهای چرب اشباع) و 3)  سویای حرارت داده شده (محتوی اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع)  بودند. برای بررسی وضعیت متابولیکی گاوها در دوره گذار،  نمونه خون از همه گاوها در روزهای 21-، 14-، 7-، 1، 7، 14، 21 مربوط به زایش گرفته شد همچنین ماده خشک مصرفی و نمره بدنی دامها نیز اندازهگیری گردید و برای بررسی عملکرد تخمدانی، گاوها در 2 دوره 10 روزه بعد از زایش مورد اولتراسونوگرافی تخمدان قرار گرفتند. نتایج: تفاوت معنیداری در غلظت گلوکز  و کلسترول در بین تیمارها مشاهده گردید. همچنین در دوره اول اولتراسونوگرافی تعداد کلاسهای فولیکولی بزرگ از لحاظ عددی در گاوهای تغذیه شده با مکملهای چربی نسبت به گروه کنترل بیشتر بود. در دوره دوم نیز تفاوت معنیداری بین 3 گروه تیماری مشاهده نشد. نتیجهگیرینهایی: با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش به نظر میرسد  اسیدهای چرب غیر اشباع  برای بهبود دادن وضعیت انرژی و نهایتاً عملکرد تخمدان  مزیت بیشتری نسبت به اسیدهای چرب اشباع دارند.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

A comparison of the effect of food sources of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on ovarian activity of holstein dairy cows in close up period

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sadegh Hashemi 1
  • Mahdi Ganjkhanlou 1
  • Mehdi Dehghan-banadaky 1
  • Abolfazl Zali 1
  • Amir Akbari Afjani 2
  • Manochehr Amini 3
  • Ahmad Pourakbari 2
1 Department of Animal Sciences, University College of Agriculture and Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj-Iran
2 Department of Animal Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan-Iran
3 Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran- Iran
چکیده [English]

BACKGROUND: Application of different sources of fatty acids and their effect on ovarian performance is a current issue in animal science and research centers. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different fatty acids in close-up period on population and size of follicles and measuring blood parameters related to the energy state of the body after calving of lactating dairy cows. METHODS: In this study 15 Holstein cows were selected by expected date of parturition (around 30 days before calving) and assigned them randomly within treatments diets. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous. Cows were fed 1) control (carbohydrate source), 2) Rumen-protected fat (RF) (saturated fatty acids) and 3) Roasted Soybean (RS) (unsaturated fatty acids). Blood sample was collected at 7 day intervals in -21, -14, -7, 1, 7, 14, 21 periods of calving. Also dry matter intake and body condition score cows were recorded. Ovarian activity was monitored by daily transrectal ultrasound scanning from 30 to 40 and 61 to 70 DIM. RESULTS: Average plasma glucose and cholesterol concentration were significantly different among treatment groups. Numerically, follicular classes were higher in cows, fed with fat diet compared with control group. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results of this experiment, it seems that application of polyunsaturated fatty acids, to improve the energy and ultimately the function of the ovaries, has more advantage than saturated fatty acids.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • close-up period
  • Fatty acids
  • ovarian activity
  • roasted soybean
Abayasekara, D.R.E. (1999) Effects of altering dietary fatty acid composition on prostaglandin synthesis and fertility. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 61: 275–287.

Beam, S.W. (1997) Energy balance and ovarian follicle development prior to the first ovulation in dairy cows receiving three levels of dietary fat. Biol Reprod. 56: 133–142.

Bilby, T.R., Block, J., do Amaral, B.C., Sa Filho, O., Silvestre, F.T., Hansen, P.J., Staples, C.R. (2006) Effects of dietary unsaturated fatty acids on oocyte quality and follicular development in lactating dairy cows in summer. J Dairy Sci. 89: 3891–3903.

Bilby, T.R., Sozzi, A., Lopez M.M., Silvestre, F.T., Ealy, A.D., Staples, C.R.W.W.T. (2006) Pregnancy, bovine somatotropin, and dietary n-3 fatty acids in lacataing dairy cows: 1. Ovarian, conceptus, and growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system responses. J Dairy Sci. 89: 3360–3374.

Calder, P.C., Yaqoob, P., Thies, F., Wallace, F.A., Miles, E.A. (2002) Fatty acids and lymphocyte functions. Br J Nutr. 87: S31-S48.

Cerri, R.L., Santos, J.E., Juchem, S.O., Galvao, K.N., Chebel, R.C., (2004) Timed artificial insemination with estradiol cypionate or insemination at estrus in high-producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 87: 3704-3715.

Cerri, R.L., Juchem, S.O., Chebel, R.C., Rutigliano, H.M., Bruno, R.G.S., Galvão, K.N., thatcher, W.W. Santos, J. (2009) Effect of fat source differing in fatty acid profile on metabolic parameters, fertilization, and embryo quality in high-producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 92: 1520–1531.

DeFries, C.A., Neuendorff, D.A., Randel, R.D. (1998) Fat supplementation influences postpartum reproductive performance in Brahman cows. J Anim Sci. 76: 864-870.

Drackley, J.K. (1999) ADSA Foundation Scholar Award. Biology of dairy cows during the transition period: the final frontier? J Dairy Sci. 82: 2259-2273.

Ferguson, J.D., Sklan, D., Chalupa, W.V., Kronfeld, D.S. (1990) Effects of hard fats on in vitro and in vivo rumen fermentation, milk production and reproduction in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 73: 2864-2879.

Erickson, P.S., Murphy, M.R., Clark, J.H., (1992) Supplementation of dairy cow diets with calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and nicotinic acid in early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 75: 1078-1089.

Firkins, J.L., Eastridge, M.L., (1992) Replacement of forage or concentrate with combinations of soyhulls, sodium bicarbonate, or fat for lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 75: 2752-2761.

Garcia-Ispierto, I., Lopez-Gatius, F., Santolaria,

P., Yaniz, J.L. Nogareda, C. N., Lopez-Bejar, M., De Renesis, F. (2006) Relationship between heat stress during the peri-implantation  period and early fetal loss in dairy cattle. Theriogenology. 65: 799–807.

Grummer, R.R., Carroll, D.J., (1991) Effects of dietary fat on metabolic disorders and reproductive performance of dairy cattle. J Anim Sci. 69: 3838-3852.8

Harrison, J.H., Kincaid, R.L., McNamara, J.P., Waltner, S., Loney, K.A., Riley, R.E., Cronrath, J.D. (1995) Effect of whole cottonseeds and calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids on performance of lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 78: 181-193.

Hightshoe, R.B., RCC, R.B., Corah, L.R., Kiracofe, G.H., Harmon, D.L., Perry, R.C. (1991) Effects of calcium soaps of fatty acids on postpartum reproductive function in beef cows. J Anim Sci. 69: 4097-4103.

Holter, J.E., H.H., Hayes, W.E., Urban, J., Duthie, AH. (1992) Energy balance and lactation response in Holstein cows supplemented with cottonseed with or without calcium soap. J Dairy Sci. 75: 1480-1494.

Johnson, H.D. (1987) Bioclimates and livestock: bioclimatology and the adaptation of livestock. World Anim Sci. 21: 140–151.

Lammoglia, M.A., Willard, S.T., Hallford, D.M., Randel, R.D., (1997) Effects of dietary fat on follicular development and circulating concentrations of lipids, insulin, progesterone, estradiol-17 beta, 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2 alpha), and growth hormone in estrous cyclic Brahman cows. J Anim Sci. 75: 1591-1600.

Lammoglia, M.A., Willard, S.T., Oldham, J.R., Randel R.D., (1996) Effects of dietary fat and season on steroid hormonal profiles before parturition and on hormonal, cholesterol, triglycerides, follicular patterns, and postpartum reproduction in Brahman cows. J Anim Sci. 74: 2253-2262.

Lucy, M.C., De la Sota, R.L., Staples, C.R., W.W.T. (1993) Ovarian follicular populations in lactating dairy cows treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (Sometribove) or saline and fed diets differing in fat content and energy. J Dairy Sci. 76: 1014–1027.

Mattos, R., Staples, C.R., Thatcher, W.W. (2000) Effects of dietary fatty acids on reproduction in ruminants. Rev Reprod. 5: 38-45.

McNamara, S., Butler, T., Ryan, D.P., Mee, J.F., Dillon, P., O’Mara, F.P., Butler, S.T., Anglesey, D., Rath, M., Murphy, J.J. (2003) Effect of offering rumen-protected fat supplements on fertility and performance in spring-calving Holstein-Friesian cows. Anim Reprod Sci. 79: 45-56.

Moallem, U., Folman, Y., Sklan, D. (2000) Effects of somatotropin and dietary calcium soaps of fatty acids in early lactation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance of high-yielding dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 83: 2085-2094.

Needleman, P., Turk, J., Kakshik, B.A., Morrison, A.R. (1986) Arachidonic acid metabolism. Ann Rev Biochem. 55: 69–102.

Petit, H.V., Dewhurst, R.J., Scollan, N.D., Proulx, J.G., Khalid, M. Haresign, W., Twagiramungu. H.G. (2002) Milk production and composition, ovarian function and prostaglandin secretion of dairy cows fed omega-3 fatty acids. J Dairy Sci. 85: 889–899.

Petit, H.V., Germiquet, C.D.L. (2004) Effect of feeding whole, unprocessed sunflower seeds and flaxseed on milk production, milk composition, and prostaglandin secretion in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 87: 3889–3898.

Palmquist, D.L., Weiss, W.P. (1994) Blood and hydrolyzed feather meals as sources of undegradable protein in high fat diets for cows in early lactation. J Dairy Sci. 77: 1630-1643.

Schroeder, G.F., Delahoy, J.E., Vidaurreta, I., Bargo, F., Gagliostro, G.A., Muller, L.D. (2003) Milk fatty acid composition of cows fed a total mixed ration or pasture plus concentrates replacing corn with fat. J Dairy Sci. 86: 3237-3248.

Skaar, T.C., Grummer, R.R., Dentine, M.R., Stauffacher, R.H. (1989) Seasonal effects of prepartum and postpartum fat and niacin feeding on lactation performance and lipid metabolism. J Dairy Sci. 72: 2028-2038.

Spicer, L.J., Vernon, R.K., Tucker, W.E., Wettemann, R.P., Hogue, J.F., Adams, G.D. (1993) Effects of inert fat on energy balance, plasma concentrations of hormones, and reproduction in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 76: 2664-2673.

Staples, C.R., Burke, J.M., Thatcher, W.W. (1998) Influence of supplemental fats on reproductive tissues and performance of lactating cows. J Dairy Sci. 81: 856-871.

Staples, C.R., Thatcher, W.W., Clark, J.H. (1990) Relationship between ovarian activity and energy status during the early postpartum period of high producing dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 73: 938-947.

Stegeman, G.A., Casper, D.P., Schingoethe, D.J., Baer, R.J. (1992) Lactational responses of dairy cows fed unsaturated dietary fat and receiving bovine somatotropin. J Dairy Sci. 75: 1936-1945.

Zeron, Y., Ocheretny, A., Kedar, O., Borochov, A., Sklan, D., Arav, A. (2001) Seasonal changes in bovine fertility: relation to developmental competence of oocytes, membrane properties and fatty acid composition of follicles. Reproduction. 121: 447-454.