Barker, D.L., Sell, J.L. (1994) Dietary L-carnitine did not influence performance and carcass composition of broiler chickens and young turkeys fed low or high fat. Poult Sci. 73: 281-7.
Biber, L. (1988) Carnitine. Ann Rev Biochem. 57: 261-283.
Bish, C.L., Beans W.L., Ruszler P.L., Cherry J. A. (1985) Body weight influence on egg production. Poult Sci. 64: 2259-2262.
Borges, S.A., Fischer Da Silva, A.V., Majorka, A., Hooge, D.M., Cummings, K.R. (2004) Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, miliequivalents per kilogram). Poult Sci. 83: 1551-1558.
Borum, D.R. (1983) Carnitine. Ann Rev Nutr. 3: 233-259.
Bremer, J. (1983) Carnitine: metabolism and functions. Physiological Rev. 63: 1420-1480.
Cartwright, A, L. (1986) Effect of carnitine and dietary energy concentration on body weight and body lipid of growing broilers. Poult Sci. 65: 21-29.
Celik, L., Ozturkcan, O., Inal, T.C., Canacankatan, N., Kayrin, L. (2003) Effect of L-carnitine and niacin supplied by drinking water on fattening performance, carcass quality and plasma L-carnitine concentration of broiler chicks. Archiv Tierenahr. 57: 127-136.
Cooper, M.A., Washburn, K.W. (1998) The relationships of body temperature to weight gain, feed consumption, and feed utilization inbroilers under heat stress. Poult Sci.77: 237-242.
Corduk, M., Ceylan, N., Ildiz, F. (2007) Effects of dietary energy density and L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and blood parameters of broiler chickens. S Afr J Anim Sci. 37: 65-73.
Darryl, L., Barker, D.L., Jerry, L., Sell, J.L. (1994) Dietary carnitine did not influence performance and carcass composition of broiler chickens and young turkeys fed low- or high– fat diets. Poult Sci. 73: 281-287.
Donkoh, A. (1989) Ambient temperature: a factor affecting performance and physiological response of broiler chickens. Int J Biometeor. 33: 259–265.
Esteva-Garcia, E., Mack, S. (2000) The effect of DL-methionine and betaine on growth performanceand carcass characteristics in broilers. Anim Feed Sci Technol. 87: 151-159.
Iwaga mi, Y. (1996) Changes in the ultrastructure of human cells related to certain biological responses under hyperthermic culture conditions. Human Cell. 9: 353.
Kita, K., Kato, S., Aman, M., Okumura, J., Yokota, H. (2002) Dietary L-carnitine increase plasma insulin like growth factor I- concentration in chicks fed a diet with adequate dietary protein level. Br Poult Sci. 43: 117-121.
Leibetseder, J. (1995) Studies on the effects of L-carnitine in poultry. Anim Nutr. 48: 97-108.
Lien, T.F., Horng, Y.M. (2001) The effects of supplementary L-carnitine on the growth performance, serum components, carcass traits and enzyme activities in relation to fatty acid β-oxidation of broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci. 42: 92- 95.
Mahmoud, H., Rabie, M.H., Szilagyi, M. (1998)Effects of L-carnitine supplementaion of diets deffering in energy levels on performance, abdominal fat countent, and yield and composition of edible meat of broilers. Br J Nutr. 80: 391-400.
Mast, J., Buyse, J., Goddeeirs, B.M. (2000) Dietary L-Carnitine supplementation increases antigenspecific immunoglobulin G production in broiler chickens. Br J Nutr. 83: 161-6.
Miah, M.Y., Rahman, M.S., Islam, M.K., Monir, M.M. (2004) Effects of saponin and L-carnitine on the performance and reproductive fitness of male broiler. Int J Poult Sci. 3: 530- 534.
Morêki, J.C. (2008) Feeding strategies in poultry in hot climte. Poultry Today. 601: 1-5.
Mujahid, A., Yoshiki, Y., Akiba, Y., Toyomizu, M. (2005) Superoxide radical production in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress. Poult Sci. 84: 307-314.
Nguyen, T.V., Bunchasak, C. (2005) Effects of dietary protein and energy on growth performance and carcass characteristics of Betong chicken at early growth stage. Songklan J Sci Technol. 27: 1171-1178.
Pourreza J., Sadegi G.A., Mehri, M. (2008) Scott’s Nutrition of the Chicken. Leeson, S., Summers, J.D. (eds.). (3rd ed.) Arkan Danesh Publication, Esfahan, Iran.
Rabie, M.H., Szilagyi, M. (1998) Effects of L-carnitine supplementation of diets differing in energy levels on performance, abdominal fat content, yield and composition of edible meat of broilers. Br J Nutr. 80: 391–400.
Rabie, M.H., Szilagyi, M., Gippert, T., Votisky, E., Gerendai, D. (1997) Influence of dietary L-carnitine on performance and carcass quality of broiler chickens. Acta Biol Hung. 48: 241-252.
Sarica, S., Corduk, M., Kilinc, K. (2005) The effect of dietary L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, carcass traits and composition of edible meat in Japanese quail. J Appl Poult Res. 14: 709-715.
Smith, M.O., Teeter, R.G. (1987) Potassium balance of the 5 to 8 week old broiler exposed to constant heat or cycling high temperature stress and the effects of supplemental potassium chloride on body weight gain and feed efficiency. Poult Sci. 66: 487-492.
Taraz, Z., Dastar, B. (2008) Effects of L-Carnitine supplementation in diets with different levels of protein on performance and blood parameters in broiler chickens. J Agric Sci Nat Res. 5:123-114.
Temim, S., Chagneau, A.M., Guillaumin, S., Michel, J., Peresson, R., Geraert, P.A., Tesseraud, S. (1999) Effects of chronic heat exposure and protein intake on growth performance, nitrogen retention and muscle development in broiler chickens. Reprod Nutr Dev. 39: 145-156.
Xu, Z.R., Wang, M.Q., Mao, H.X., Zhan, X. A., Hu, C.H. (2003) Effects of L-Carnitine on growth performance, carcass compositon, and metabolism of lipids in male broilers. Poult Sci. 82: 408- 413.
Young, Z., Qiugang, M., Xiumei, B., Lihong, Z., Qiang, W., Cheng, J., Laiting, L., Haicheng, Y., (2010) Effects of dietary acetyl- L-carnitine on meat quality and lipid metabolism in Arbor Acres broilers. As-Aus J Anim Sci. 23: 1639-1644.